main sequence stars
It is stable, with balanced forces keeping it the same size all the time. Main-sequence stars with more than two solar masses undergo convection in their core regions, which acts to stir up the newly created helium and maintain the proportion of fuel needed for fusion to occur. Main sequence stars fuse hydrogen atoms to form helium atoms in their cores. Bond and E. Nelan (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md. The position of a star in the diagram provides information about what stage it is in, as well as its mass and brightness. They not only make up galaxies, but many also harbor planetary systems. [note 1] This difference in magnitude provides a measure of a star's temperature. The outer regions of a massive star transport energy by radiation, with little or no convection. Main sequence stars fuse hydrogen atoms to form helium atoms in their cores. The main sequence is sometimes divided into upper and lower parts, based on the dominant process that a star uses to generate energy. Like neutron stars, black holes, and supergiants, these no longer belong on the main sequence. A massive star will fuse its hydrogen reserves more quickly. Eventually, the outer layers blast out to space, and what's left is the collapsed core, which becomes a neutron star or black hole. The greater than the mass of the star, the greater the gravitational pressure that tries to collapse the star. τ Main-Sequence Stars. Since the luminosity gives the amount of energy radiated per unit time, the total life span can be estimated, to first approximation, as the total energy produced divided by the star's luminosity.[46]. As the position of a star on the HR diagram shows its approximate luminosity, this relation can be used to estimate its radius.[22]. They then use it to create other elements. © In the early 20th century, astronomers realized that the mass of a star is related to its luminosity, or how much light it produces. In the lower main sequence, energy is primarily generated as the result of the proton-proton chain, which directly fuses hydrogen together in a series of stages to produce helium. High-mass stars become red supergiants, and then evolve to become blue supergiants. [60], When a cluster of stars is formed at about the same time, the main sequence lifespan of these stars will depend on their individual masses. By contrast, a lower opacity means energy escapes more rapidly and the star must burn more fuel to remain in equilibrium. Read about our approach to external linking. In a main sequence star, hydrogen nuclei fuse together to form helium nuclei. Once sufficiently dense, stars begin converting hydrogen into helium and giving off energy through an exothermic nuclear fusion process. )[48] Thus, about 90% of the observed stars above 0.5 M☉ will be on the main sequence.


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