pangolin uses
The Kumasi Metropolitan area is approximate 254 km2 and is located between latitudes 6°35” and 6°4”N and longitudes 1°30” and 1°35” E [25]. Pangolin scales had the highest use report (19 of 35 ailments), followed by bones (14 ailments), the head (10) and meat (9), respectively (Table 2). The EIA investigation further found that while pangolin scale ‘yinpian’ (semi-processed scales) was removed from the list of products covered by State medical insurance in 2019, the insurance scheme has actually added an additional patent pangolin scale treatment to its list – ‘weiling guci gao’ – and continues to cover four patent medicines containing pangolin scales that were on the 2017 list. The relatively high CI index for pangolin bones also suggests that bones have an important role to play in traditional healing practices and previous studies have also indicated that they are prescribed for the treatment of rheumatism, stroke and pains in Nigeria [19, 20] and Sierra Leone [23]. Some pangolin species such as the Sunda pangolin … Indeed, the suite of ailments treated by pangolin scales in this study was similar to the ailments treated in other African countries [14, 18, 19, 20, 23]. Based on reported seizures between 2011 and 2013, an estimated 116,990-233,980 pangolins were killed, which represents only the tip of … Though many think of them as reptiles, pangolins are actually mammals. The pangolin heart had a very low index value and was occasionally used to prevent miscarriage in Ghana although Akpona et al. The eyes were primarily prescribed for spiritual protection but were also used to treat kleptomania as was found in Nigeria [19, 20] and Apollo (acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis) in Sierra Leone [23]. This form of harvest on wild pangolin populations should be carefully assessed and monitored as current turn-over rates in the utilisation of these species for traditional medicine is not known and very little data exists on current population levels and distribution of these three species in Ghana [50]. Chris Hamley, EIA Senior Pangolin Campaigner, said: “Amid mounting concerns about the role of wildlife trade in causing the coronavirus pandemic, it is critical that the Chinese Government ends all legal use of pangolin scales, instead of allowing the multi-billion dollar TCM industry to carry on as usual. Kumasi is a cosmopolitan city and home to most major ethnic groups from West Africa. No, Is the Subject Area "Infertility" applicable to this article? An estimated 1 million pangolins were trafficked in the last ten … Tweet; Tell a Friend; Browse Photos & Videos h. The fight to stop pangolin extinction . Even though the healing properties and effectiveness of pangolin body parts have not been scientifically tested, they remain of large cultural significance due to their purported healing properties and the harvest of these species will continue unabated. No, Is the Subject Area "Convulsions" applicable to this article? Appreciable differences were observed when comparing the various indices with one another (Table 5)., Academic Editor: Jing Ai, EIA’s Pangolin Product Survey 2020, detailed in the report, identified: Some of the products were found on e-commerce sites, including eBay and Taobao, with international shipping to the US, UK and other countries. “By keeping the door open … Our study confirmed this in that we found knowledge about pangolin scales used for medicinal purposes to be more widespread than any other pangolin body part. The use of pangolins in traditional medicinal practices is of particular interest as it is well documented as being used within traditional medicinal systems in Asia [10–13] and as a source of traditional medicine in those parts of Africa where they occur [13–23]. Popular knowledge about the curative properties of pangolin body parts is an integral part of the local culture and demonstrates the necessity of carefully studying the use of pangolins for therapeutic practices to better understand the human cultural interaction. The metropolis has a human population of 2,035,064 constituting 43% of the total human population of 4,780,380 in the Ashanti region [26]. The sampling process was purposeful with participants intentionally selected because they could provide the relevant information pertinent to this study [28]. Donations are tax-deductible as allowed by law. The Informant Agreement Ratio (IAR) was used to measure the consensus level for treating a particular ailment making use of a particular pangolin body part amongst THs. Cultural importance index (CI), developed by Tardio and Pardo-de Santayana [29], takes into account the uniformity of the body part used between THs as well as a body part’s diversity of uses to treat ailments among THs. In traditional Chinese medicine, the scales are prescribed to treat a variety of conditions. What are pangolin scales used for? [31] this index provides a valid and easily derived estimation of the animal’s medicinal cultural significance as a resource. View our inclusive approach to conservation. where u is the category of use (e.g. Scales were also important for spiritual protection and the treatment of convulsions. 1182208 | Company No. Although the majority of Ghanaians have embraced modern scientific medicine, indigenous health beliefs are commonly sought within urban and rural communities in this country [6] and is recognized by the government as a component of the healthcare delivery system where the Traditional Medicine Practice Act (Act 575 of 2000) provides the legal framework for the practice of TM in Ghana. 221 companies licenced to sell pangolin scale products; 56 of these companies actively advertising medicinal products claiming to contain pangolin online; a total of 64 products listing pangolin as an ingredient advertised on manufacturer websites; six of these products available via e-commerce websites. THs were also questioned on how this knowledge was acquired. The distribution of knowledge about traditional remedies follows a pattern whereby few remedies are known to almost everyone while most knowledge is idiosyncratic [31] and this idiosyncrasy may account for the variation in indices for body parts, particularly for the IAR. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Verbal prompts and probes were used to motivate informants and elicit information from them and the pace as well as direction of the interviews was dictated by the participants. Asian pangolins in particular are threatened by loss of habitat due to expanding agriculture and other human uses. The RFC was calculated using the following formula: It is currently estimated that 80% of Africa′s population uses traditional medicine (TM) [1] either on its own or collectively with Western medicine [2].


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